The nexus between global carbon and renewable energy sources: A step towards sustainability
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The energy transition is at the core of sustainable development as it helps to combat global warming and climate change. Similarly, carbon markets also support the climate change mitigation. Therefore, by realizing the potential role of clean energy and carbon markets in ensuring environmental sustainability, this study analyzes the spillovers and connectedness between the environment (global carbon) and renewable energy sources (wind, solar, geothermal, biofuel, and fuel cell). The empirical analysis is conducted by applying the novel “TVP-VAR” connectedness framework of Balcilar et al. (2021) on the daily data over the period from August 1, 2014, to February 4, 2022. The findings show that solar and biofuel appear as the highest net shock transmitter among alternative renewable sources while global carbon is shown as the net receiver of shocks. The largest transmission of shocks to global carbon is observed from wind followed by solar. Although these findings support the connectedness between renewable energy and the environment, however this connectedness is influenced by economic crises such as the oil crisis and pandemic crisis. During COVID-19, the fuel cell was the highest transmitter of shocks. The results are important for policy formulation, investment, and portfolio management as they provide insights into the interconnectedness and help in boosting climate actions.