Analyzing the determinants of carbon emissions from transportation in European countries: the role of renewable energy and urbanization
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The continuous growth of transport sector and the increase in carbon emissions from transportation attract the attention of policy makers in sustainable transportation. Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the determinants of pollution from transportation. The aim of this study is to analyze the impacts of economic growth, renewable energy consumption and urbanization on CO2 emissions from transport sector in an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) framework for European countries. To end this, second-generation panel long-run estimates and non-causality test are applied on the dataset from 1980-2014. Empirical pieces of evidence show that increases in renewable energy consumption mitigate carbon emissions from transportation, while urbanization has statistically insignificant positive impact on pollution. An increase in renewable energy consumption reduces CO2 from transportation by about 12 percent. The EKC hypothesis is validated. Moreover, unidirectional causality runs from renewable energy, economic growth and urbanization to emissions in transport sector. The findings of this study suggest strengthening the sustainable transportation system by promoting eco-friendly and energy-efficient modes of transportation and increase the environmental awareness of urban population and their overall concerns related to environmental issues caused by transportation. This study provides concrete evidence to the policy makers of European countries for especially sector-based renewable energy projects, drawing attention to the greenhouse gas impact of European transportation sector.